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Knowledge Machines

By: , Posted on: March 27, 2017

Evolution of Knowledge Science: Myth to Medicine: Intelligent Internet-Based Humanist Machines explains how to design and build the next generation of intelligent machines that solve social and environmental problems in a systematic, coherent, and optimal fashion. The book brings together principles from computer and communication sciences, electrical engineering, mathematics, physics, social sciences, and more to describe computer systems that deal with knowledge, its representation, and how to deal with knowledge centric objects. Readers will learn new tools and techniques to measure, enhance, and optimize artificial intelligence strategies for efficiently searching through vast knowledge bases, as well as how to ensure the security of information in open, easily accessible, and fast digital networks.

PART I – Philosophic orientation and information age

Section 01 with five chapters deals with two extreme human nature: (a) the wise, philosophic, and contemplative and (b) the aggressive, coarse, brutal and selfish nature, of human personality.   These two opposing faces of human temperament tear the conscience apart. The technological revolutions during the later years of the last century, have favored the innovations to enhance the leisure and comforts of life. In a very pragmatic world, the contributions of Henry Ford and the Wright Brothers have gained acceptance over teachings of Buddha or the selflessness of Gandhi or even the Presidency of Carter. This drift in the attitude of human thought has affirmed the foundation for the machines of early 20th century technology to foster the electronic age of the later generations. Breaking ground by the invention of the Transistor at Bell Laboratories and the study progress towards integration of logic circuits on Silicon Wafers, the digital age had prompted the PC age and general acceptance of the role of computers as essential forces in the society.

Network technologies and the ‘C’ language initiated again at Bell Laboratories, have strengthened the communication aspects of information and knowledge necessary to reach the public and survive as strict underlying and universal concepts. These diverse fields of knowledge stemming from semiconductor physics, mathematics, and communication sciences are interrelated and amplified in this Section of Part I of the book. During this thrust forward in making life easier, the ethical counterpart of enhancing social awareness has been ignored due to the lack of direction of the part of the social and political leaders. The wide gap for the greedy to make a deep valley down the path of self-gratification is now deeply entrenched. Human minds being the catalysts for social change can once more chart the balance with the knowledge machines that are contemplative, coherent and steadfast. This is the essential premise of this Section of Part I.

PART I – Information Machines and Social Progress

Section 02 with five chapters deals with the greatly enhanced human social needs that have accompanied the industrial age and leisure class of the early 20th century have enter the domain of the modern devices and audiovisual gadgets. Starting with rotary telephones to micro-cellular wireless phones and Internet devices, these gadgets have become more and more intelligent in providing the fancies of the generations. Any trace of human connectivity of wire-pairs has been replaced by computer-based electronic switching systems or the ESS that perform most network switching since the mid-1960s. The intertwined threads of evolving human lives, and the technologies in the information-age machines are presented in this Section.

This Section also establishes the connectivity between human nature for gratifying the social needs with the flow and integrity of knowledge. Human and social aspects are explored together with computer and network sciences.   Knowledge sciences are based on the well-established principles from motivation, decision science and economics. The concepts are integrated from truisms, psychology, behavioral theory, and deployment of resources to gratify needs as an economic activity and as a well-developed strategy from the contribution in Operations Research to offer multiple (yet satisfactory rather than unique) solutions.

PART I – Knowledge Science and Social Influence

Section 03 with five chapters deals with the basis of information wherefrom knowledge is derived. Perfectly organized information (with no ambiguities) makes for rudimentary knowledge. Processing of knowledge and its enhancement leads to the underlying truisms that offer knowledge more value, longevity and universality.   By tradition, knowledge is more distilled and permanent than information that is collected from data in a systematic and pre-designated fashion. The syntactic rules, semantics and compilation are designed to facilitate the flow of information and knowledge seamlessly from people to people, nation to nation and culture to culture. The very essence and character of stages of evolution of knowledge from inform information are presented and depicted here. All aspects of communication, social constraints, encoding/decoding, security, dependability and error-free operation are addressed in this section. Some processes remain analog but digital storage, and processing has become a standard since the middle of the 20th century.

PART II – The scientific basis for knowledge flow

Section 01 with five chapters deals with the scientific and physical basis for the flow of information and knowledge.   The widely documented principles for the flow of electricity, heat and fluids only offer an entry point into the domain of knowledge in chapter 16. When the flow of knowledge is considered as the flow of the elements of knowledge (or kels) that make up a larger body of knowledge (KCO), then the media characteristics for the flow of KCO can be envisioned and discussed in chapter 17. This rather primitive approach is enhanced further by considering the flow of knowledge based on the combined characteristics of the type of knowledge and the media characteristics to that particular type. The tools and techniques for this more refined approach are based on the transmission theory of data streams in chapter 18. This methodology developed at Bell Laboratories (of the 1960s to 1990s era) has been deployed by the communication scientists for last five or six decades. When kels are very finely subdivided, then principles of quantum (or kuantum) are applicable and finally inspiration theory for the flow of knowledge presented in chapters 18 and 19 of this part with a presentation of the fragmented properties of knowledge and their flow in chapter 20.

Click here to download chapter 30 in which the author discusses the fact that computer science and technology has shaped and accelerated every discipline. This chapter specifically addresses the architecture of a medical machine.

PART II – Knowledge From Nature To Information In Machines

Section 02 with five chapters deals with a quantitative approach applicable in the knowledge domain. The gain in knowledge potential (KnP) is considered as “work-done” by individual KCOs as they spend the physical, mental, psychological, etc., energies spent in acquiring the potential. This potential is expended, altered, expanded and or enhanced by the individual efforts during the deployment of the KnP in the routine activities by actions based on verb-functions (VFs’) that constitute integral parts of kels and KCOs. The utility of the expenditure of the knowledge energy are also presented in the various chapters in this part. The traditional concepts of Marshalls’ microeconomic theory are not directly applicable in the knowledge domain since KnPs   are not depleted simply by sharing them. In nature, the concept of deploying and sharing the basis of elements (such as neutron, protons and electrons) is most effective and prevent since the beginning of the universe.

Roles of kels and KCOs in knowledge processing machines is are also introduced and discussed in chapter 23. The foundations of societies and cultures that have survived for millennia are presented in chapter 24 and finally the impact of human discretion in guiding the flow of smaller kels and the very large KCOs and KELs are presented in chapter 25.

PART II – From Social Machines to Knowledge Machines

Section 03 with five chapters deals with the migration of socially oriented knowledge machines to the computer-based knowledge machines. Though both sets of machines are computer oriented, the knowledge machines can be tagged on mind machines driven by individual needs of the human users, and as medical machines derived from the condition and status of physiological (or even emotional) health of any user. Personal knowledge bases are coupled with Internet knowledge bases of healthy and well-adjusted human beings. To some extent, the approach is modeled from the work of Maslow who presented the statistical studies of healthy and well-adjusted successful people in the society and constructed his pyramid of needs. In this part, we compare the medical evaluation of any users’ status the mind (chapter 29) and body (chapter 30) to offer to improve and surpass the “average” mind quotient and body health condition.

Human adaptability and creativity deserve the intellectual supremacy that processors and media cannot deliver. Programmed performance has its distinct limitations for the nature and depth of the solutions offered. The social pathways that accompany the neuron nets offer the beauty and variations that human beings flavor and relish. The variety of the human solutions is the expression of intelligence that people expect and deserve to circumvent the crevasses of boredom. In this arena of human agility, machine fall behind humans as humans have fallen behind in the area of processing and communication.

Children, adults, fun seekers and game players are becoming more sophisticated. The expectations from devices, switches and the communication media are high. Though this trend is not evolutionary, it is very human to compete with gadgets and chip designers still have a challenge in offering the best solutions to the social situations that human being face in the daily life. Humanist machines that imitate behavioral tendencies are not social machines that construe the local and global nature of social problems of individuals and societies. Further, they intelligently construct a satisfactory solution, if not an optimal solution to such problem(s).

Being functionally akin to the global positioning systems (GPS) that offer roadways between given locations, the social machines also offer a possible solution between two social situations for most human beings.   The solutions are tailored to the traits of the users, their past preferences and social tendencies. The solutions form the starting basis for the user to fine tune and may not be optimal every time. The social machines adapt to current socioeconomic conditions, and the solution remains rational in a global fashion thus saving time and energy to resolve most social problems that abound.

Epilogue – Transition Knowledge Field Theory (KFT)

This epilogue presents a plateau for a more precise Science of Knowledge in the real space, even though it appears well founded in the knowledge space. Extrapolations deep into knowledge space (KS) and domains (KD) are presented. The mathematical tools and methodology are borrowed from other disciplines thus providing an initial entry into knowledge field theory. With careful deliberations and willful insight, some of the concepts from vector algebra and vector operators such as del, grad, div, curl, curl-of-curl, etc. are interpreted in KD, though not as precisely as their representations in traditional Field theory or in Physics. In many instances, even though these operators carry a sense of interpretation, they reach mental dead ends. However, these mathematical operators provide a foothold into treating knowledge on a scientific basis, assigning a degree of numerical measures and imposing a degree of mathematical formalism.

The Laplace, Poisson, Quasi-Poissonian Equations, Divergence Theorem and Gauss’s Law, and Stokes Theorem are transfused into KD and knowledge space. These incursions shed new light in the formalism, as they are applicable in the knowledge domain. These transfused concepts revive the basic awareness that knowledge fields exist in knowledge space like fields in electromagnetism (EM) and in other thermal or fluid mechanics problems in real space. Long before civilizations, the EM fields have existed and only recently discovered in the cosmic world. Knowledge fields penetrate and travel through minds as EM waves penetrate objects and traverse through space. Total reception, partial and total shielding are as feasible for movement of knowledge in minds as they are feasible for EM fields in circuits and antenna spaces.

In this epilogue, we explore the shadows of strict formalism of Physics and vector algebra in the deep trenches of knowledge spaces and its science.   The extent of transfusion between the two disciplines is restricted to the pragmatism of interpreted concepts and the equations. Though incomplete, the unison of the two disciplines offers pathways in the uncharted knowledge space, and conversely it offers the universality of knowledge into the realm of vector fields in physics.

About the Author

Syed V. Ahamed taught at the University of Colorado for 2 years before joining Bell Laboratories. After 15 years of research, he returned to teaching as a Professor of Computer Science at the City University of New York. He has been a Telecommunications consultant to Bell Communications Research, AT&T Bell Laboratories and Lucent Technologies for the last 25 years. He has received numerous prizes for his papers from IEEE and was elected a Fellow of the IEEE for his seminal contribution to the simulation and design studies of the High-speed Digital Subscriber Lines. He has authored and coauthored several books in two broad areas of intelligent AI-based broadband multimedia networks and computational framework for knowledge.

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